Quantitative Research in Applied Linguistics

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Review of Related Literature


To review means to read. To read means to read aloud or silently the text and think about the content. To think may mean relating the content to the already obtained knowledge or to obtain totally new knowledge. In the later case, you have to make the basic “map” or structure of the new information so that it is ready to be added with later result of literature review.

What can be reviewed?

  1. Encyclopedia. This will give you general idea about the topic, but not in details.
  2. Books. They will give you details account of the topics, but the content might be not up-to-date.
  3. Magazine. This will give you the current situation of the field, but it is not presented scientifically.
  4. Research journal. This will give you the latest development of the field (if the journals you read are not outdated) and it is presented scientifically.

How to locate the related literature?

  1. Go to the library and check the catalog, and get the books or paper journal you want.
  2. Go to the library and use the internet to get access to the subscribed e-journal. 
  3. Go to the internet and search the topic with “Google scholar” search engine. It is worth trying.

How to take a note

You can prepare some cards to take a note or just can use your notebook. The important point is that you should write down the title and other data of the literatures, the summary or quotation, and the page. Don’t forget to code your cards or note.

The main functions of literature review are to help you:

  1. Understand the topic better so you know exactly the position of your research within the field of the study, so you know the relation of your research with the other parts of the field of the study.
  2. Position your research question in a meaningful way, so you can spell out the contribution of your research.
  3. Focus the research questions, so that they are not too broad.
  4. Avoid unnecessary replication.
  5. hoose good research design and methods.

Reading: Donald Ary, et al. ….


Review literature related to your topic. Summarize them succintly. State the position of your study within the related field and the contribution of your study to the theory and practice of the field of study.



  1. Ahmad Abubakar says:

    Dear Sir,

    I have not got comment on my hypothesis revision with regards to your advice.

    Thank you,
    Ahmad Abubakar
    Postgraduate Program
    English Education Department

  2. Yoyok Agus Dwi Irawan says:


    I am proposing the following scheme to develop my review of related literature.
    1. The significance of collaboration and interaction in language learning as the rationale for using peer feedback on writing.
    2. The definition of peer feedback.
    3. The importance of peer feedback.
    4. The procedure to conduct peer feedback.

    1. The Significance of Collaboration and Interaction in Language Learning
    Language is a social phenomena and it is learnt when there is interaction among learners. The
    social interactionst view of learning emphasizes the dynamic nature of the interplay between
    teachers, learners and tasks, and provides a view of learning arising from interactions with others (Williams and Burden 1997: 4 as cited by Chibsa (2008)). According to this view, learning never takes place in isolation. This necessitates the need to encourage interactions among the stakeholders of the learning process. Noting the importance of co-operation in learning, Nunan (1992: 34) as cited by Chibsa (2008) writes that co-operative learning can foster learner growth in terms of both academic achievement, personal growth and the development of social and learning skills. This approach of learning holds true for teaching and learning the writing skill. Learners should interact, negotiate and co-operate in the process of writing. Nunan (1992: 100) as cited by Chibsa (2008) underlines that in the real world contexts, writing is not a solitary enterprise; it is a social act. Based on this fact, Nunan argues that the pedagogical activity of writing should be similar to that of the real world. He further explains that if we want to ensure our writing classes prepare students for their life outside the classroom, we must give them opportunities to experience collaborative writing. However, one could think that an individual produces a text by him/herself, without interacting with others. True indeed, writing is an independent activity; that is when seen in the light of professional writers. In learning to write, students produce their first draft independently, and then reading and commenting would facilitate the learning of the skill as the above scholars claim. In line with this, learners can be of much help to one another in the improvement of their writing skills if they co-operate in the process of writing. One form in which students can cooperate is by reading each other’s drafts and giving comments. This is the essence of peer feedback.

    2. The Definition of Peer Feedback.
    Hansen and Liu (2002: 1) as cited by Chibsa (2008) define peer feedback as the use of learners as sources of information and interactants for each other in such a way that learners assume roles and responsibilities in commenting and critiquing each other’s drafts in both written and oral formats in the process of writing.

    2. The Importance of Peer Feedback.
    There are considerable literatures on the effect and importance of peer feedback on students. For example, Mendonca and Johnson (1994) as cited by Chibsa (2008) state that peer feedback has social, cognitive, affective and methodological benefits. Kurt and Atay (2006) as quoted by Chibsa (2008) indicate that peer feedback increases motivation and self-confidence. They also argue that since student reviewers soon perceive that other students experience the same difficulties in writing that they do, peer feedback also leads to a reduction in writer apprehension and an increase in writer confidence (Kurt and Atay 2007: 14) as cited by Chibsa (2008). In support of the above arguments, Norrish (1992: 21) in Chibsa (2008) writes that peer comment is less threatening than teacher feedback. Hence, peer feedback has an affective benefit in addition to the other benefits in the process of writing.

    Peer feedback also plays a significant role in the process of writing. Zeng (2006: 1) as quoted by Chibsa (2008) summarises the benefits of peer feedback into cognitive, linguistic and social. Zeng, quoting Mittan (1989), as cited by Chibsa (2008), explains the cognitive benefit of peer feedback saying that the peer response activities in teaching L2 writing can force students to exercise their thinking rather than to receive passively information from the teacher. Regarding the linguistic benefits, students experience through collaborative group production valuable opportunities to improve their ability to read and write because the ongoing community orientation of this approach enables them to draw on the strengths and resources of their peers while sorting through their own growing knowledge of L2 writing (Hirvela 1999, quoted in Zeng 2006: 2 as cited by Chibsa (2008)). Peer response activities give students more ways to discover and explore ideas, to find the right words to express their ideas, and to negotiate with their readers about their ideas.
    Regarding the social benefit of peer feedback Mendonca and Johnson (1994) in Chibsa (2008), write that students’ communicative power can be enhanced by encouraging them to express and negotiate their ideas.
    Peer feedback also helps students to gain confidence and reduce apprehension by allowing them to see peers’ strengths and weaknesses in writing (Leki 1990) in Chibsa (2008). Peer feedback is, thus, an important technique in helping students to be communicative, thereby building their confidence in the process of learning.
    Bartels (2003: 35-36) as cited by Chibsa (2008) describes similar benefits of written peer response by saying that written peer feedback creates an interested audience for students writing resulting in an opportunity for communicative writing. It also provides instant feedback and negotiation of meaning. In doing so, students get the chance to request for clarification, ask questions, and even argue about the response instantly. This again leads to more language learning process. Written peer feedback is also preferable as it is easy to monitor what each student says, which helps the teacher to spot areas where students need practice and improvement. By using written peer response, assessing students’ writing is easier. When writing assignments are turned in accompanied by the previous draft(s), and the peers comments, it is easier for the teacher to ascertain which ideas originated with the student author and how well the student was able to respond to and incorporate the feedback from peers, something that would not even be possible with oral responses. As the teachers often do not have enough time to write thorough comments on each student’s paper, written peer response provide students with thorough feedback.

    3. The Procedure to Conduct Peer Feedback
    Hess (2001: 81−82) as quoted by Chibsa (2008) gives the following procedural guides to conduct peer feedback.
    1. In groups of three, students give each group member a copy of their composition.
    2. Each group takes review and edit sheets.
    3. The teacher explains the difference between being a Review (who reads for content) and
    an Editor (who reads for structure).
    4. The first student in each group reads the composition out loud while his/her group mates
    follow along. They can ask questions or make comments during the reading.
    5. At the completion of the reading, each student fills out the review and edit form.
    6. The process is repeated with each student.
    7. Students receive their peer review and edit forms and read the comments of classmates.
    They may wish to ask questions for clarification.
    8. Students rewrite compositions making appropriate additions and changes.
    9. The compositions are filed in the cumulative folder.

    I am looking forward to reading your comments.
    Thank you very much.

    Yoyok Agus Dwi Irawan
    NPM: 2091040013
    Post Graduate Program
    Islamic University of Malang
    Master of English Education

  3. christian says:

    where can i find the book of “Review of Related Literature of Teaching Standard”??
    please…..i need badly for your reply!??!
    Thank You!!!

    • Sugeng says:

      What is your topic? Go to the department or university library, I think you will see few books on teaching.
      Another way is go to the Internet.


  4. emma says:

    i need your help about the review of related literature about learning process…

    • Sugeng says:

      Sorry Emma,
      I don’t it for sure. But, please look for the book or journal in Psychology. Once I have the book on the Psychology of Learning, but now it is gone.

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