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Assumption and Hypothesis

An assumption is a belief that forms one of the bases for the research. This belief is not to be tested or supported with empirical data. Very often belief is not stated in a research proposal.

A hypothesis is a tentative answer to a research question.

Where can a hypothesis be derived from?

a. from the observation before the research is conducted. This is called inductive hypothesis

b. from the theory. This is called deductive hypothesis.

It does not matter how you derive it, but it must: (a)  state relationship between variables, (b) be testable–remember the operational definition, (c) be consistent with the existing theory/knowledge, and (d) be simple and concise.

There are two types of hypothesis: research hypothesis and null hypothesis.

Research hypothesis. A research hypothesis is usually developed from experience, literature or theory, or combination of these. This is the expected relationship between variables.

Example:

Pak Sigit wants to research the relation between debating activities and argumentative writing skills. First of all, Pak Sigit believes (assumes) that in debating activities, students use their logical capacity to build an argument to support the topic of the debate. Similarly, in writing argumentative writing, students also need logical capacity to build arguments to support the topic of their writings. In short, Pak Sigit’s assumption is the skills obtained in debating capacities can be transfered into writing ability.

After reading and observing the phenomenon, he develops a research hypothesis, “there is a positive correlation between students’ debating activities and argumentative writing skills.” This kind of hypothesis is called directional hypothesis.

Another type of hypothesis is non-directional hypothesis. Example: there is a correlation between students’ debating activities and writing skills.

Null hypothesis. A null hypothesis is the one that states NO relationship between varibales. The function is to let the research test the hypothesis statistically.

Please make the null hypothesis of the above research hypothesis.

STEPS TO TEST THYPOTHESIS

1. Make the null hypothesis

2. select the suitable research method

3. do research and measure the result

4. analyze the data and test the hypothesis statistically

ASSIGNMENT:

Please write your research question, the research hypothesis and null hypothesis. Write them here as a comment to this post. Write also your class after your name at the end of the comment.

Reference:

Ary, Donald, et al. 2002. Introduction to Research in Education. Belmont: Wadswroth Group

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115 Comments

  1. Laily Indah Hariyani says:

    Research Problem :
    What is the effects of using language laboratory to the listening skill of students of SMA Negeri 1 Trawas, Mojokerto.
    Research Hypothesis:
    There is a positive correlation of using language laboratory to the listening skill of students of SMA N 1 Trawas, Mojokerto.
    Null Hypothesis :
    There is no correlation between the using of language laboratory to the listening skill of students of SMA N 1 Trawas, Mojokerto.

    Laily Indah Hariyani
    Post Graduate Program_UNISMA
    NPM: 2091040075

    • Sugeng says:

      Laily,

      Ooops, sorry, Laily …. your hypotheses are not in line with your research problem. :-)

      Sugeng

      • Laily Indah Hariyani says:

        ok I will Change the problem what about this sir,
        Research Problem :
        Is there an effects of using language laboratory to the listening skill of students of SMA Negeri 1 Trawas, Mojokerto.
        Research Hypothesis:
        There is a positive correlation of using language laboratory to the listening skill of students of SMA N 1 Trawas, Mojokerto.
        Null Hypothesis :
        There is no correlation between the using of language laboratory to the listening skill of students of SMA N 1 Trawas, Mojokerto.
        Pls give me a comment
        Thanks.

        Laily Indah Hariyani
        Post Graduate Program_UNISMA
        NPM: 2091040075

      • Sugeng says:

        Laily,

        The problem is that in your research question, you talk about EFFECT.
        In your hypothesis you talk about CORRELATION.
        They are not the same. Research question and hypothesis MUST talk about the same things as hypothesis is the temporary answer to the question.

        Pls revise again.

        Regards,
        Sugeng

  2. Tutik Muniroh says:

    Reseach Problem

    Is there an Effect of Students’ achievement of joining the Intensive Course on _*English Subject*_ of the third students of SMAN 1 Trawas in the 2009/2010 Academic Year

    Reseach Hypothesis

    there is an Effect of Students’ achievement of joining the Intensive Course on _*English Subject*_ of the third students of SMAN 1 Trawas in the 2009/2010 Academic Year

    Null Hypothesis

    there is not an Effect of Students’ achievement of joining the Intensive Course on _*English Subject*_ of the third students of SMAN 1 Trawas in the 2009/2010 Academic Year

    Tutik Muniroh
    Post Graduate Program_UNISMA
    NPM: 2091040076

    ==
    Dear Tutik,
    Probably the problem is better revised into:
    Is there an Effect of Students’ joining the Intensive Course on the English Subject achievement of the third students of SMAN 1 Trawas in the 2009/2010 Academic Year

    Please revise the hypothesis accordingly.
    What do you think?

    Sugeng

    • Tutik Muniroh says:

      Research Problem

      Is there an Effect of Students’ joining the Intensive Course on the English Subject achievement of the third students of SMAN 1 Trawas in the 2009/2010 Academic Year?

      Reserch Hypothesis

      There is an Effect of Students’ joining the Intensive Course on the English Subject achievement of the third students of SMAN 1 Trawas in the 2009/2010 Academic Year

      Null Hypothesis

      There is no Effect of Students’ joining the Intensive Course on the English Subject achievement of the third students of SMAN 1 Trawas in the 2009/2010 Academic Year

      Tutik Muniroh
      Post Graduate Program_UNISMA
      NPM: 2091040076

      This is my revision. What do you think? Is it correct? please give your comment. Thanks a lot

      ==
      Thanks, Tutik.
      I think it is better now.

      Regards,
      Sugeng

  3. Rudiyanto says:

    Reseach Problem

    Is there an Influence of homestay’s distance of new students in PPS-UNISMA on Quantitative Reseach Subject achievement in the 2009/2010 Academic Year?

    Research Hypothesis

    There is an Influence of homestay’s distance of new students in PPS-UNISMA on Quantitative Reseach Subject achievement in the 2009/2010 Academic Year?

    Null Hyphothesis

    There is no Influence of homestay’s distance of new students in PPS-UNISMA on Quantitative Reseach Subject achievement in the 2009/2010 Academic Year?

    Rudiyanto
    Post Graduate Program_UNISMA
    NPM: 2091040074

    ==
    Dear Rudi,

    This is a logical problem. But, do you think it has great significance?

    Regards,
    Sugeng

  4. Hanifatus Sa'diyah says:

    Research Problem:

    Is there any Effect of hearing English music on the listening skill of the second students of SMA Al Munawwariyyah in the 2009/2010 Academic year?

    Research Hypothesis:

    There is an Effect of hearing English music on the listening skill of the second students of SMA Al Munawwariyyah in the 2009/2010 Academic year.

    Null Hyphothesis:

    There is no Effect of hearing English music on the listening skill of the second students of SMA Al Munawwariyyah in the 2009/2010 Academic year.

    Hanifatus Sa’diyah
    Post Graduate Program_UNISMA
    NPM: 2091040062

    ==
    Dear Hanif,

    This is good.
    Thanks.

    Regards,
    Sugeng

  5. Rudiyanto says:

    I’m not sure that the problem has great significance. In my mind, I just want to give the newest problem in our class. My be, there is interesting one related of different home stay of the students. because the class has come from multiple regencies and different provinces.

    What do you think? I’ve to change my research problem? or may be any other solution? give your comment. Thank you for your attention. I’ll always waiting your critic, comment and solution.

    ==
    Dear Rudi,

    Since our major is English Teaching, I hope you have a research problem related to English teaching or applied linguistics in general.

    Regards,
    Sugeng

  6. LILIK INDAYANI says:

    Research Problem :
    What is the effects of students’ ability to speak English on their confidence of SMA Negeri 1 Gondang, Mojokerto.
    Research Hypothesis:
    There is an effects of student’s ability to speak english on their confidence of SMA Negeri 1 Gondang, Mojokerto.
    Null Hypothesis :
    There is no effects of student’s ability to speak english on their confidence of SMA Negeri 1 Gondang, Mojokerto.

    Lilik Indayani
    Post Graduate Program_UNISMA
    NPM: 2091040073

    ==
    Dear Lilik,

    Yes, this is OK. But what kind of confidence do you mean?
    Further, what do you mean by “confidence of SMA Negeri 1 …”

    Regards,
    Sugeng

    • LILIK INDAYANI says:

      Dear Mr Sugeng….. i mean that “student’s confidence of SMA Negeri 1 Gondang, Mojokerto ”

      confidence in this case about confidence to do anything, eg: confidence to speak english with their teacher, confidence to speak english with foreigner, confidence to show on their ability in front of the audience,etc.

      please, give your comment !!!

      ==
      Dear Lilik.

      Ok, then. The next step is read the related literature to see whether it is logical to relate the variable.
      After that, you can revise if necessary or go on with the hypothesis + designs.

      Regards,
      Sugeng

      • LILIK INDAYANI says:

        Dear Mr Sugeng….
        I find the difficulties in my research problem, because I can’t do research design well, exactly in procedures or steps how to do this design.
        my research problem:
        “What is the effects of students’ ability to speak English on their confidence of SMA Negeri 1 Gondang, Mojokerto”.

        so, I must give my variable a treatment with give speaking class and what can i do to get their score? I hope you can help me to solve my problem sir….
        thank you….

      • Sugeng says:

        Dear Lilik,
        This is better done with “ex-post facto research design”.
        Please read my posting on the research design.
        With the design, you can start by classifying students into two groups. The groups are students with high ability to speak English and students with low ability to speak English. You can identy them by looking at the available data or test them.
        Then, see whether the group have the same confidence or not.
        To arrive at the confidence scores, you need to find the theory about “confidence”, then give operational definition and make the descriptors to score their confidence.

        With this design, it seems that it is difficult to claim that the ability affects Ss’ confidence. Only after you find very convincing literature about the possible effect of soeaking ability on confidence you can claim the causal relation in your research.
        Otherwise, it is a correlational research, though.

        Now, you can think it over whether you want to go on with this idea or find another research problem. As for me, I think this current idea is not a bad idea.

        Regards,
        Sugeng

  7. Amroji says:

    Reserach Problem:
    What is the effect of teaching to understand the questions on the reading comprehension achievements of the third year students of junior high school?

    Research Hypothesis:
    The third year students of junior high school will make higher achievements of the reading comprehension when they are taught to understand the questions.

    Null Hypothesis:
    There is no effect of teaching to understand the questions on the reading comprehension achievements of the third year students of junior high school.

    Amroji
    Post Graduate Program_UNISMA
    NPM: 2091040002

    ==
    Dear Amroji,
    Yes, this is a good research problem.

    Regards,
    Sugeng

  8. Rosdiana Amini says:

    RESEARCH QUESTION :

    Is there any relationship between grammar and vocabulary mastery and reading comprehension of the third-year students of SMA Laboratorium UM.

    RESEARCH HYPOTHESIS:

    The relationship of grammar and vocabulary mastery with reading comprehension of the third-year students of SMA Laboratorium UM.

    NULL HYPOTHESIS:

    There is no relationship between grammar and vocabulary mastery and reading comprehension of the third-year students of SMA Laboratorium UM.

    ROSDIANA AMINI
    GRADUATE PROGRAM-UNISMA
    NPM : 209140006

    ==
    Dear Rosdiana,

    This is an interesting research problem. But, please revise your research hypothesis.
    Regards,
    Sugeng

  9. Mahrus says:

    RESEARCH QUESTION:

    Do the second-year students of the state of senior high school of Turen I taught by laissez-faire teachers show higher problem solving skills than those taught by authoritarian teachers?

    RESEARCH HYPOTHESIS:

    The second-year students of the state of senior high school of Turen I taught by laissez- faire teachers show higher problem solving skills than those taught by authoritarian teachers.

    NULL HYPOTHESIS:

    There is no difference between the second-year students of the state of senior high school of Turen I taught by laissez- faire teachers show higher problem solving skills than those taught by authoritarian teachers.

    MAHRUS
    GRADUATE PROGRAM-UNISMA
    NPM: 2091040001

    ==
    Dear Mahrus,

    This is a good research problem. However, your null hypothesis needs to be revised. Pls revise it :-)
    There is a grammatical problem in it.

    Regards,
    Sugeng

  10. Rudiyanto says:

    Research Problem :
    What is the influence of the using of Transition Signals on Procedure text of the first year students of SMA Negeri 1 Trawas, Mojokerto.

    Research Hypothesis:
    There is a positive influence of the using of Transition Signals on Procedure text of the first year students of SMA Negeri 1 Trawas, Mojokerto.

    Null Hypothesis :
    There is no influence of the using of Transition Signals on Procedure text of the first year students of SMA Negeri 1 Trawas, Mojokerto.

    I’ve change my Research Prolem and Hypothesis related of English Teaching. Now, please you revise my problem and my hypothesis. I’ll waiting on your comment. And I’ve considered that this problem will be my topic in my next thesis. Thanks a lot.

    Rudiyanto
    Post Graduate Program_UNISMA
    NPM: 2091040074

    ==
    Dear Rudi,
    “What is the influence of the using of Transition Signals on Procedure text of the first year students of SMA Negeri 1 Trawas, Mojokerto”.

    Do you mean “procedure text quality”?
    If yes, it is ok. If no, please revise.
    :-)

    Regards,
    Sugeng

  11. moh. arief wahyudi says:

    How does the student’s ability to comprehend English text in reading text?

    ==
    Dear Arief Wahyudi?

    This research problem is not very clear.
    “How dows…” ask about a manner. Howver, it is followed by “students ability to ….”
    Please revise it. How many variables do you want to study?

    Regards,
    Sugeng

    • moh arief wahyudi says:

      how does the student’s ability to comprehend english text in reading skill at smp 1 bangkalan?

      Moh. arief wahyudi
      PPS Unisma
      2091040034

      • moh arief wahyudi says:

        sorry sir, I add my hypothesis because it wasnot complete

        research hypothesis
        there is siqnificant correlation to comprehend english text in reading skill for the student’ ability
        null hypothesis
        there is no

        moh arief wahyudi
        PPs Unisma 2091040034

      • Sugeng says:

        Dear Arief,

        Your research hypothesis is ok.
        Your null hypothesis is not complete yet :-)

        Sugeng

      • Sugeng says:

        Dear Arief,

        What is it? :-)
        Research question?
        If yes, this is not a good research question. The question is not focused on particular relation between two variables.
        Sugeng

  12. abdul lathif says:

    is the mother tongue influence the writing skill used by post graduate student of UNISMA 2009?

    ==
    Dear Abdul Latief,

    Your research question is not clear. “Is ….. influence”? Do you mean “Does ….. influence..?”
    “Mother tongue” is very broad. Which aspect of mother tongue?

    Regards,
    Sugeng

  13. suprapto says:

    Dear Sir,

    This is my revised research problem:

    Do the students of SMAN 1 Malang who frequently read text written by native speaker enable them to minimize the first- language -influenced errors in writing?

    Research hypothesis:

    The students who frequently read text written by native speaker can minimize the first-language-influenced errors in writing.

    Alternative hypothesis:

    The students who frequently read text written by native speaker cannot minimize the first-language-influenced errors in writing.

    suprapto

    2091040020

    PPS UNISMA
    ==
    Dear Suprapto,

    This is a good research problem and hypotheses. However, your research problem need revision again. What do you think if I revise as follows:

    “Do SMAN 1 Malang students’ frequent readings of texts written by native speakers minimize the first- language -influenced errors in writing?”

    Regards,
    Sugeng

  14. suprapto says:

    I am sorry for not stating the null hypothesis, the following is the null hypothesis:

    there is no difference between students who frequently read text written by native speaker and students who infrequently read text written by native speaker in minimizing the first-language-influenced errors in writing.

    suprapto
    2091040020

    =
    OK, good!
    Sugeng

  15. Yoyok Agus Dwi Irawan says:

    Dear sir,
    Here is my research question we already discussed last week in the classroom. You commented that there was no problem about it.

    Research Question:

    What is the effect of peer feedback on the writing performance of language class students of Public Senior High School 6 of Malang?

    Research Hypothesis :

    There is an effect of peer feedback on the writing performance of language class students of Public Senior High School 6 of Malang.

    Null Hypothesis:

    There is NO effect of peer feedback on the writing performance of language class students of Public Senior High School 6 of Malang.

    I am looking forward for your comment.
    Thank you.

    Yoyok Agus Dwi Irawan
    NPM: 2091040013
    Post Graduate Program
    Islamic University of Malang
    Master of English Education

    ==
    Yes, this is great, Mas Yoyok.

    Regards,
    Sugeng

  16. M.Hasadollah says:

    Research Problem:
    What is the effect of picture media in teaching narrative-writing skill on the English achievement of SMP N 1 Gempol third graders?
    Research Hypothesis :
    There is the effect of picture media in teaching narrative-writing skill on the English achievement of SMP N 1 Gempol third graders
    Null Hypothesis:
    There is no the effect of picture media in teaching narrative-writing skill on the English achievement of SMP N 1 Gempol third graders

    ==
    OK, good!
    By the way, is it the general English achievement or writing English achievement?

    Regards,
    Sugeng

  17. M.Hasadollah says:

    sorry sir. I didn’t include my identity:
    Name: Mukhamad Hasadollah/M.Hasadollah
    Post Graduate Program_Unisma
    NPM: 2091040030

  18. Rudiyanto says:

    Excuse me, sir. Where is the comment for my problem and my hypothesis? I’ll always waiting your comment

    Rudiyanto
    Post Graduate Program_UNISMA
    NPM: 2091040074

  19. Decky Yohanes Nd. says:

    Research Problem:
    Is there any effect of watching English film on enriches vocabulary of the first semester students IKIP BUdi Utomo

    Research Hypothesis:
    There is an effect of watching Egnlish film on enriches vocabulary on the first semester stiudents IKIP Budi Utomo

    Null Hypothesis:
    There is no effect of watching English film on enriches vocabulary of the first semester students IKIP Budi Utomo

    Decky Yohanes Nd.
    Post Graduate Program_UNISMA
    NPM: 2091040056

    ==
    Dear Decky,

    This is good. However, you need to revise the sentence structure.
    e.g. “There is an effect of watching English film on the vocabulary enrichmen of the first semester students IKIP Budi Utomo.”

    Revise also the hypotheses, pls.

    Regards,
    Sugeng

  20. Uun Muhaji says:

    Dear Sir,
    Here are my Research Question and the Hypotheses:

    Research Question:
    Do the students taught using Full-English Teaching Instruction have better Speaking Achievement than those under Bilingual Teaching Instruction?

    Research Hypothesis:
    The students taught using Full-English Teaching Instruction have better Speaking Achievement than those under Bilingual Teaching Instruction.

    Null Hypothesis:
    The students taught using Full-English Teaching Instruction DO NOT have better Speaking Achievement than those under Bilingual Teaching Instruction.

    I do hope there is no problem with it, and I’m looking forward for your comment, sir.
    Thank you.

    UUN MUHAJI
    Post Graduate Program of Islamic University of Malang. Master of English Education.
    NPM: 2091040021

    =

    Dear Uun,

    Yes, there is no problem with it. You can just go on to the next topic. This is great!

    Regards,
    Sugeng

  21. suprapto says:

    Dear sir,

    Yes sir, I think your suggestion is good , bcs my research problem is to wordy. tks a lot

    rgds

  22. suprapto says:

    Dear sir, well I think, I resent my nullhypothesis twice, as I am not sure whether or not the first nullhypothesis is delivered. According to my understanding ,null hypothesis is a prediction on two variables have no significant influences or on the other word, when two methods A and B compared on their excelence, it is assumed that they are equally good.

    tks

    =
    Dear Prapto,

    Yes, that is right. Null hypothesis is a statement that states that there is no difference existing between two things (not necessarily variables). No difference can be equal in number, in amount, in the degree of effectiveness, etc.

    You sent the null hypothesis as follows:
    There is no difference in minimizing first-language-influenced errors between students who frequently read texts written by native speaker and students who infrequently read texts written by native speaker.

    There is a confusion here. Which or who minimize or not minimize?
    PLEASE REPLY THIS COMMENT IF WE TALK ABOUT THIS TOPIC, DON’T MAKE YOU THREAD. :-)
    Otherwise, it is difficult for us to trace the topic of discussion among us.

    Regards,
    Sugeng

    • suprapto says:

      Allright sir, how abt my first nullhypothesis, is it acceptable or not? well , if it is not acceptable, i will look into it and make revision accordingly. tks a lot sir.

      rgds

      ==
      Which one do you mean?

      Rgds,
      Sugeng

  23. LAILI HIBATIN WAFIROH says:

    RESEARCH QUESTION:

    What is the effect of learning English in SAC (Self Access Center) on English proficiency of the first semester students of English Department in Airlangga University?

    Research Hypothesis:
    There is a positive correlation of learning English in SAC (Self Access Center) and English proficiency of the first semester students of English Department in Airlangga University.

    Null Hypothesis :
    There is no correlation between the learning English in SAC (Self Access Center) and English proficiency of the first semester students of English Department in Airlangga University.

    Laili Hibatin Wafiroh
    Post Graduate Program_UNISMA
    NPM: 2091040121

    ==
    Dear Laili,
    The research problem and the hypothesis IS NOT in line.
    The problem talks about “what is the effect”, and both hypotheses talk about correlation.
    Please revise your research problem OR hypotheses.

    BTW, what do you mean by “what is …”? Do you want to see positive/negative effects or you still want to see the effects in the field and describe it later?”

    Regards,
    Sugeng

    • LAILI HIBATIN WAFIROH says:

      Dear Sir,
      Thanks for your comment, Sir. I’d like to revise my research problem. Actually, I want to investigate if there is an effect of learning English in SAC (one of media to improve English proficiency which is facilitated by the campus).

      Here is my revision:
      RESEARCH QUESTION:

      Is there an effect of learning English in SAC (Self Access Center) on English proficiency of the first semester students of English Department in Airlangga University?

      Research Hypothesis:
      There is an effect of learning English in SAC (Self Access Center) on English proficiency of the first semester students of English Department in Airlangga University.

      Null Hypothesis :
      There is no effect of learning English in SAC (Self Access Center) on English proficiency of the first semester students of English Department in Airlangga University.

      That’s all Sir. Thanks before hand.

      Laili Hibatin Wafiroh
      Post Graduate Program_UNISMA
      NPM: 2091040121

      • Sugeng says:

        Dear Laily,

        Because a quantitative research is to test hypothesis, the problem and hypothesis must be specific. You must decide what kind of effect you will encounter, e.g. the increase of the students scores.

        Can you revise them again now? Thanks.
        Sugeng

      • LAILI HIBATIN WAFIROH says:

        Dear Sir,
        Thanks for the correction. I am really appreciated to receive that. Sir, i would like to change the population and sample because it affects the result of the research.

        Here is my new revision:

        RESEARCH QUESTION:

        Is there an effect of learning English in SAC (Self Access Center) on the increase of English scores of Indonesian Department students in Airlangga University?

        Research Hypothesis:
        There is an effect of learning English in SAC (Self Access Center) on the increase of English scores of Indonesian Department students in Airlangga University.

        Null Hypothesis :
        There is no effect of learning English in SAC (Self Access Center) on the increase of English scores of Indonesian Department students in Airlangga University.

        By the way, i have another research question and hypotheses. Could I send them to make comparison? I’d like to make up my mind.

        Here is my other research problem:
        RESEARCH QUESTION:

        Is there an effect of writing diary assignment on writing skill improvement of the first graders of Public Senior High School Sukodadi Lamongan in the 2009/2010 academic year?

        Research Hypothesis:
        There is an effect of writing diary assignment on writing skill improvement of the first graders of Public Senior High School Sukodadi Lamongan in the 2009/2010 academic year.

        Null Hypothesis :
        There is no effect of writing diary assignment on writing skill improvement of the first graders of Public Senior High School Sukodadi Lamongan in the 2009/2010 academic year.

        Actually, it is based on my own experience. I ask my students to write their daily activities on diary. Then, they should submit every two weeks.

        In your opinion, which one is better?
        I am looking forward to hearing from you.
        Big Thanks.

        Laili Hibatin Wafiroh
        Post Graduate Program_UNISMA
        NPM: 2091040121

        ==
        Dear Laili,

        Your second research problem and hyupotheses are great. I like them more than the first (Airlangga Univ.) because this one is more down to earth.
        Yes, please go on to the designs.

        Regards,
        Sugeng

  24. Mahrus says:

    Dear Sir,

    This is my revised

    RESEARCH QUESTION:

    Do the second-year students of the state of senior high school of Turen I taught by laissez-faire teachers show higher problem solving skills than those taught by authoritarian teachers?
    Dear Sir,

    RESEARCH HYPOTHESIS:

    The second-year students of the state of senior high school of Turen I taught by laissez- faire teachers show higher problem solving skills than those taught by authoritarian teachers.

    NULL HYPOTHESIS:

    There is no difference between the second-year students of the state of senior high school of Turen I taught by laissez- faire teachers and those taught by authoritarian teachers.

    MAHRUS
    GRADUATE PROGRAM-UNISMA
    NPM: 2091040001

    ==
    Dear Mahrus,

    Your research problem and research hypothesis are good.
    Your null hypothesis is not good.
    It should be:

    Both groups of the second-year students of the state of senior high school of Turen I taught by laissez- faire teachers and taught by authoritarian teachers do not show ….

    Regards,
    Sugeng

  25. ROSDIANA AMINI says:

    Dear Sir,

    This is my revised

    RESEARCH QUESTION :

    Is there any relationship between grammar and vocabulary mastery with reading comprehension of the third-year students of SMA Laboratorium UM.

    RESEARCH HYPOTHESIS:

    The grammar and vocabulary mastery of third-year students of SMA Laboratorium UM with their reading comprehension are closely related.

    NULL HYPOTHESIS:

    There is no relationship between grammar and vocabulary mastery with reading comprehension of the third-year students of SMA Laboratorium UM.

    ROSDIANA AMINI
    GRADUATE PROGRAM-UNISMA
    NPM : 2091040006

    ==
    Dear Rosdiana,

    Your research hypothesis is not in line with your research question.
    Your null hypothesis is good.

    Regards,
    Sugeng

  26. rudiyanto says:

    I mean “procedure text” is one of the Genre in English. It is one of kinds of text, such as narrative text, descriptive text, explanation text, etc. I do this in order to more specific of the variable.

    What do you think? Should I revise the problem and hyphothesis? what is the solution? Thanks

    Rudiyanto
    Post Graduate Program_UNISMA
    NPM: 2091040074

    • Sugeng says:

      Oh, this one.
      I think I have commented on it.
      The main point is “what aspect of procedure text do you mean”?
      Read again my comment.

      Below I paste my comment and your research questions and hypotheses:

      Research Problem :
      What is the influence of the using of Transition Signals on Procedure text of the first year students of SMA Negeri 1 Trawas, Mojokerto.

      Research Hypothesis:
      There is a positive influence of the using of Transition Signals on Procedure text of the first year students of SMA Negeri 1 Trawas, Mojokerto.

      Null Hypothesis :
      There is no influence of the using of Transition Signals on Procedure text of the first year students of SMA Negeri 1 Trawas, Mojokerto.

      I’ve change my Research Prolem and Hypothesis related of English Teaching. Now, please you revise my problem and my hypothesis. I’ll waiting on your comment. And I’ve considered that this problem will be my topic in my next thesis. Thanks a lot.

      Rudiyanto
      Post Graduate Program_UNISMA
      NPM: 2091040074

      ==
      Dear Rudi,
      “What is the influence of the using of Transition Signals on Procedure text of the first year students of SMA Negeri 1 Trawas, Mojokerto”.

      Do you mean “procedure text quality“?
      If yes, it is ok. If no, please revise.
      :-)

      Regards,
      Sugeng

    • Sugeng says:

      Rudi,

      My question is “what aspects of procedure text”? Is it the quality?

      In your research question you mention “what is the influence of XXXX on procedure text”?
      “Procedure text” as a name of text genre.

      Nothing can influence the genre.
      However, something can influence the quality of the text in that genre.

      Please let me know if you don’t understand my point.
      Pls revise your research problem and the hypotheses accordingly.

      Regards,
      Sugeng

  27. subandi says:

    What is the effect of having laboratory class to the listening ability of SMPN 1 Lekok Pasuruan ??

    ==
    Pak Bandi, do you want to do a qulitative research?
    If NO, the question “what is” may not be a good choice.

    Regards,
    Sugeng

  28. SUBANDI says:

    Dear Mr. Sugeng.
    I would like to write a Quantitative Research but I am not sure with my first research problem,so let me change it and please correct.

    Research Problem
    What is the influence of learning vocabulary to the reading comprehension achievement of the third
    grade students of SMP N 1 Lekok

    Research Hypothesis
    There is a significant influence of learning vocabulary to the reading comprehension achiement of the third grade students of SMP N 1 Lekok

    Null Hypothesis
    There is no significant influence of learning vocabulary to the reading comprehension achievement of the third grade students of SMP N 1 Lekok

    SUBANDI
    Post Graduate Program_UNISMA
    NPM : 2091040029

    • Sugeng says:

      Dear Pak Bandi,

      This is OK, actually. However, it is better you read the literatue, so you have a prediction on the kind of influence. If you have this kind of research problem, it seems that this can be a qualitative research.
      Revise it into, for example, “Does learning vocabulary increase ….. ”

      Regards,
      Sugeng

  29. mohammad ulur rosyad says:

    Dear sir,
    I would like to ask for my research problems based on the title “The effect of Literal Bilingual Translation Teaching Method on students’ speaking and grammar proficiency taught at public elementary students of Madrasah Ibtidaiyah AL Misbakh”

    Research Problem Statement
    1. What is the effect of Literal Bilingual Translation Teaching Method on the students’ speaking and grammar proficiency taught at Public elementary student of Madrasah Ibtidaiyah Al Misbakh?

    2. Does this method make the students progress both in speaking and grammar proficiency?

    are my research problems accepted to be observed in the term of quantitative research?
    thank you for your comment

    MOHAMMAD ULUR ROSYAD
    209104003

    POSTGRADUATE PROGRAM OF UNISMA 2009

    ==

    The question “what is …” is more suitable for qualitative research.
    Just directly ask like “Does this method improve something?”
    You may just have one research question.
    Pls, revise. and reply to this comment.

    Regards,
    Sugeng

    • Is it appropriate to revise the research question to be “Does this method make the students improve both their speaking and grammar proficiency?”

      and what about my research hypothesis and null hypothesis below? are both of them accepted or not?

      Research Hypothesis
      The students taught by using the literal bilingual teaching method will be good in both speaking and grammar.

      Null Hypothesis
      There is no significant effect of teaching students by using the literal bilingual teaching method on the improvement of their speaking and grammar proficiency.

      Thank you for your comment

      • Sugeng says:

        Dear Rosyad,

        You need to explicitly state what “this method” refer to in the research problem.

        For your research hypothesis, you must be aware that experiment is done to see whether there is a significant improvement or decrease. your word “good” does not imply the comparison. It is better to use words like “better” or “worse” in your formulation.

        Considering your research problem, the null hypothesis can be made in several versions:
        1. The students taught by using the literal bilingual teaching method will not have a better speaking ability than that of the students not taught with literal bilingual teaching method.
        1. The students taught by using the literal bilingual teaching method will not have a better grammar ability than that of the students not taught with literal bilingual teaching method.
        1. The students taught by using the literal bilingual teaching method will not have a better speaking and grammar ability than that of the students not taught with literal bilingual teaching method.

        What do you think?

        Regards,
        Sugeng

      • MOHAMMAD ULUR ROSYAD says:

        Thank you for your comment. The method I mean is the technique of teaching in which the students are taught by using the literal bilingual teaching method. This has been done since I taught in this school. Thus, my research question will be “Does the literal bilingual teaching method make the students improve both their speaking and grammar proficiency?” in this research, I want to know the improvement of either their speaking or grammar proficiency after they have been taught by using this method. According to my mind, the last version of your suggestion is quite suitable for my null hypothesis “The students taught by using the literal bilingual teaching method will not have a better speaking and grammar proficiency than that of the students not taught with literal bilingual teaching method”. So, what do you think? Can I go further to research design?

        Thank you

        MOHAMMAD ULUR ROSYAD
        (209104003)
        POSTGRADUATE PROGRAM
        UNISMA 2009

        ==

        Yes, Pak Rosyad.
        Now it is much better.
        You can go to the design.

        Regards,
        Sugeng

  30. Dear sir,
    I would like to ask for my research problems based on the title “The effect of Literal Bilingual Translation Teaching Method on students’ speaking and grammar proficiency taught at public elementary students of Madrasah Ibtidaiyah AL Misbakh”
    Research Problem Statement
    1. What is the effect of Literal Bilingual Translation Teaching Method on the students’ speaking and grammar proficiency taught at Public elementary student of Madrasah Ibtidaiyah Al Misbakh?
    2. Does this method make the students progress both in speaking and grammar proficiency?
    are my research problems accepted to be observed in the term of quantitative research?
    thank you for your comment
    MOHAMMAD ULUR ROSYAD

    ==

    Yes, this is ok.

    Regards,
    Sugeng

  31. Decky Yohanes Nd. says:

    Research Problem:
    Is there any effect of watching English film on the vocabulary enrichmen of the first semester students IKIP Budi Utomo?

    Research Hypothesis:
    There is an effect of watching English film on the vocabulary enrichmen of the first semester students IKIP Budi Utomo

    Null Hypothesis:
    There is no effect of watching English film on the vocabulary enrichmen of the first semester students IKIP Budi Utomo

    Decky Yohanes Nd.
    Post Graduate Program_UNISMA
    NPM: 2091040056

    I Have change become like this. Whats your opinion sir?

    Thanks Sir.

  32. ROSDIANA AMINI says:

    Dear sir,
    This is my second revised.

    RESEARCH QUESTION :
    Is there any relationship between grammar and vocabulary mastery with reading comprehension of the third-year students of SMA Laboratorium UM?

    RESEARCH HYPOTHESIS:
    The relationship between grammar and vocabulary mastery with reading comprehension of the third-year students of SMA Laboratorium UM.

    NULL HYPOTHESIS:
    There is no relationship between grammar and vocabulary mastery with reading comprehension of the third-year students of SMA Laboratorium UM.

    Thank you for your comment.

    ROSDIANA AMINI
    GRADUATE PROGRAM-UNISMA
    NPM : 2091040006

    • Sugeng says:

      Dear Rosdiana,

      The research hypothesis is better directional if you have found theory or previous research findings.
      However, your research hypothesis now still needs revision. It is not a complete sentence.
      Your null hypothesis is ok.

      Regards,
      Sugeng

  33. MAHRUS says:

    Dear Sir,
    This is my revised

    RESEARCH QUESTION:

    Do the second-year students of the state of senior high school of Turen I taught by laissez-faire teachers show higher problem solving skills than those taught by authoritarian teachers?

    RESEARCH HYPOTHESIS:

    The second-year students of the state of senior high school of Turen I taught by laissez- faire teachers show higher problem solving skills than those taught by authoritarian teachers.

    NULL HYPOTHESIS:

    Both groups of the second-year students of the state of senior high school of Turen I taught by laissez- faire teachers and taught by authoritarian teachers do not show higher problem solving skills.

    Thanks a lot

    MAHRUS
    GRADUATE PROGRAM-UNISMA
    NPM: 2091040001

  34. samaroh says:

    Dear sir,
    this is my assigment

    Research problem

    what is the influence of English teacher’s preparation to the implementation of classroom activities on the student’s interest in studying English at junior high school in rural area ?

    Research hipothesis

    There is the influence of English teacher’s preparation to the implementation of classroom activities on the student’s interest in studying English at junior high school in rural area ?

    Null hipothesis

    There is no influence of the English teacher’s preparation to the implementation of classroom activities on the student interest in studying English at junior high school at rural area ?

    thank a lot

    samaroh
    2091040037
    PPS UNISMA Bahasa Inggris 2009 – 2010

    • Sugeng says:

      Dear Samaroh,

      Yes, this is OK now and you can go to the design.
      By the way the word “to” whould be “on” if we talk about effect.

      Regards,
      Sugeng

  35. arlita dwi amilawati says:

    Dear Sir,

    I’d like to write my Research Question once again.

    ” What is the effect of applying mind mapping on fluency in delivering speech of students studying at grade X SMA Negeri 1 Pandaan-Pasuruan”

    To do the research,I need to have both experimental group and control group. And I have to apply treatment. That is why I design the research as True-Experimental Design with Randomized subjects, pretest-postest control group design.

    Based on the research question, the research hypothesis will be ;

    a. Directional hypothesis : There is a positive correlation between applying mind mapping on fluency in delivering speech.

    b. Non-directional hypothesis : There is a correlation between applying mind mapping on fluency in delivering speech.

    Well, the null hypothesis will be : There is no correlation between applying mind mapping on fluency in delivering speech.

    in case of my research question, will research hypothesis with non-directional hypothesis be best applied ?

    I am looking forward to your comment and advise
    Thank you.

    Arlita Dwi Amilawati
    2091040031

    • Sugeng says:

      Dear Arlyta,

      Your hypotheses are research problem are not in line.
      Your research problem is talking about the effect and your hypothesis is talking about correlation.
      They should be about the same thing, either effect or correlation.

      Regards,
      Sugeng

  36. ROSDIANA AMINI says:

    Dear sir,
    This is my third revised.

    RESEARCH QUESTION :
    Is there any relationship between grammar and vocabulary mastery with reading comprehension of the third-year students of SMA Laboratorium UM?

    RESEARCH HYPOTHESIS:
    The relationship between grammar and vocabulary mastery with reading comprehension capability of the third-year students of SMA Laboratorium UM.

    NULL HYPOTHESIS:
    There is no relationship between grammar and vocabulary mastery with reading comprehension of the third-year students of SMA Laboratorium UM.

    Thank you for your comment.
    I hope this is the last revision.

    ROSDIANA AMINI
    GRADUATE PROGRAM-UNISMA
    NPM : 2091040006

  37. Assalamu’alaikum sir

    I want to know whether “concept map” is more efficient than “using dictionary” in reading class for SMA students like the research problem I sent to you. My problem is what is the proper title of this research. thanks

    • Sugeng says:

      Your research problem you sent me is:
      – Is the using of Map Concept more effective than the using of dictionary in Reading for the students of SMA in Malang City?

      Sorry, this research problem is not correct.
      My question: “Effective for what?” Or “Effective in doing what?”

      Pls revise your research problem.

      • Trisno Tunggal says:

        What about this one, sir?

        Research Problem
        Is there any significant different result (achievement) of reading comprehension between a group of students of senior high school who have been taught using concept map than those using conventional method (lexical guidance)?

        RESEARCH HYPOTHESIS:
        There is a significant different result (achievement) of reading comprehension between a group of students of senior high school who have been taught using concept map than those using conventional method (lexical guidance)

        NULL HYPOTHESIS:
        There isn’t a significant different result (achievement) of reading comprehension between a group of students of senior high school who have been taught using concept map than those using conventional method (lexical guidance)

        Thank you very much for the reply.

      • Sugeng says:

        Dear Trisno,

        Yes, that is not wrong.
        But, the simple formulation for the research question would be:
        “Is there any effect of teaching using mind map on the students’ reading achievement?”

        Regards,
        Sugeng

  38. Wiwik Afifatul Choiroh says:

    Dear sir,
    I will revise my first research question be like this: Is there any correlationship between teaching English through picture and students ability in learning vocabulary.
    Research hypothesis: there is correlation between teaching English through picture and students ability in learning vocabulary.
    Null hypothesis: There is no correlation between teaching English through picture and students ability in learning vocabulary.
    Thank for your correction.

    WIWIK AFIFATUL CHOIROH.
    POST GRADUATE STUDENTS-PPS UNISMA.
    NPM 2091040014

    • wiwik afifatul choiroh says:

      based on the data before
      # research question: is there any correlation between teaching English through picture and students ability in learning vocabulary of the fifth year students at SDN Gempol legundi, Gudo sub Distric Jombang Regency?
      #research hypothesis: there is correlation between teaching English through picture and students ability in learning vocabulary of the fifth year students at SDN Gempol legundi, Gudo sub Distric Jombang Regency
      #null hypothesis: there is no correlation between teaching English through picture and students ability in learning vocabulary of the fifth year students at SDN Gempol legundi, Gudo sub Distric Jombang Regency
      #research approach: quantitative research.
      I will tell you about my research design
      1. My research design is experimental design, because I want to know the correlation between teaching English through picture and students ability in learning vocabulary
      2. Here, I will use quasi-experimental design. there is no randomization but there are experimental group and control group
      3. There are two classes of the fifth year students at SDN Gempol legundi Jombang. Then, 5A class is as experimental group which get the treatment teach English through picture and 5B class is as control group which do not get the treatment. It means 5B class teach English without through picture
      4. I will use pretest- posttest for two group. the illustration below:
      E Y1 x Y2
      C Y1 – Y2
      X= treatment
      E= experimental group
      C= control group
      Y1= pretest
      Y2= posttest
      That all my explanation about research design. thank for your comment.

      WIWIK AFIFATUL CHOIROH
      post graduate program -unisma

  39. Research problem :
    What is the effect of memorizing narrative text to the reading skill of the second-year students of the the state of junior high school of Jombang VI

    Research Hypothesis :
    There is positive correlation of memorizing narrative text to the reading skill of the second-year students of the the state of junior high school of Jombang VI

    Null hypothesis :
    There is no correlation between memorizing narrative text to the reading skill of the second-year students of the the state of junior high school of Jombang VI

    Tatik Irawati
    Post Graduate Program-Unisma

  40. Agung Setiawati says:

    Research problem:
    Is there an effect of watching English News ” Metro TV” to the students’ capability of listening of Language class students of MAN 3 Malang?

    Research Hypothesis:
    There is positive effect of watching English News ” Metro TV” to the students’ capability of listening of Language class students of MAN 3 Malang

    Null hypothesis:
    There is no effect of watching English News ” Metro TV” to the students’ capability of listening of Language class students of MAN 3 Malang

    Agung Setiawati
    Pstgraduate Program UNISMA 2009

    • Sugeng says:

      All of these are OK.
      My question: ho will you control the other variables that may influence the dependence variable?

      • Agung Setiawati says:

        thank you very much sir for your comment.
        Let me answer your reply that to control the other variables which influence the dependence variable is by taking notes what factor that may influence them. For example: the students have good listening skill because they used to listen western song music. It could be an additional information for me to recognize another independent variables as supporting data.
        That’s my answer. I really hope for your next comment and thank you very much

        Agung Setiawati
        Postgraduate English Education Program UNISMA

  41. Lilis Rahmawati says:

    Dear sir,
    Research Problem
    The effect of using environment technique to the students achievement in learning vocabulary.
    Research Hypothesis
    There is positive effect of using environment technique to the students achievement in learning vocabulary.
    Null hypothesis
    There is no positive effect of using environment technique to the students achievement in learning vocabulary.

    Lilis Rahmawati
    Post Graduate Program_UNISMA
    NPM: 2091040036

  42. ROSDIANA AMINI says:

    Dear sir,
    Thanks for your comment and I will change it based on your advice.

    RESEARCH QUESTION :
    Is there any relationship between grammar and vocabulary mastery with reading comprehension of the third-year students of SMA Laboratorium UM?

    RESEARCH HYPOTHESIS:
    There is a relationship between grammar and vocabulary mastery with reading comprehension capability of the third-year students of SMA Laboratorium UM.

    NULL HYPOTHESIS:
    There is no relationship between grammar and vocabulary mastery with reading comprehension of the third-year students of SMA Laboratorium UM.

    ROSDIANA AMINI
    GRADUATE PROGRAM-UNISMA
    NPM : 2091040006

    • Sugeng says:

      OK, thanks Bu Rosdiana.

      However, the the word “between” must be accompanied with the word “to”.
      For example: “the difference between girls and boys are …”
      Would you please revise your problem and hypothesis formulation?

      You can go to the desigb, then.

      Regards,
      Sugeng

  43. Astried Damayanti says:

    Research problem:
    Is there any effect of domino game on vocabulary mastery of the third graders of SDN 3 Ngantru Trenggalek ?

    Research Hypothesis:
    There is an effect of domino game on vocabulary mastery of the third graders of SDN 3 Ngantru Trenggalek

    Null Hypothesis:
    There is no effect of domino game on vocabulary mastery of the third graders of SDN 3 Ngantru Trenggalek

    Astried Damayanti
    Post Graduate Program_UNISMA
    NPM:2091040050

  44. thank you for your comment sir. I think I should learn more to understand the difference between constructivism and positivism

  45. Research problem:
    ” Do children who fond of reading also have good writing ability?”

    Research hypothesis
    There is correlation between fond of reading and writing ability/skill on children.

    Null hypoithesis
    There is no correlatiopn between fond of reading and writing ability/skill on children.

    Dina Kartikawati
    Post Graduate Program UNISMA
    NPM 2091040047

    • Sugeng says:

      Yes. This is OK.
      However, it is better to put your research questionin the formulation of “is there any correlation between ….”

      Your research question formulation now does not use the jargon in research mthodology, but the everyday words.

      Sugeng

      • You mean my research question should:

        “Is there any correlation between fond of reading and good writing ability in children?”

      • Sugeng says:

        Yes, Dina.

        NOT: “Is there any correlation between fond of reading and good writing ability in children?”

        BUT: “Is there any correlation between fond of reading and writing ability in children?”

        Don’t use the word “good” in the research question, because it is what you will study.

        Regards,
        Sugeng

  46. MARIYA PATMAWATI says:

    RESEARCH PROBLEM:
    Is there any effect of using flashcards on the vocabulary mastery of the third year students of SDN Karanganyar 1 in the 2009/ 2010 academic year?

    RESEARCH HYPOTHESIS:
    There is an effect of using flashcards on the vocabulary mastery of the third year students of SDN Karanganyar 1 in the 2009/ 2010 academic year.

    NULL HYPOTHESIS:
    There is no effect of using flashcards on the vocabulary mastery of the third year students of SDN Karanganyar 1 in the 2009/ 2010 academic year.

    MARIYA PATMAWATI
    Post Graduate Program_UNISMA
    NPM:2091040051

  47. MARIYA PATMAWATI says:

    RESEARCH PROBLEM:
    Is there any effect of using flashcards on the vocabulary mastery of the third year students of SDN Karanganyar 1 in the 2009/ 2010 academic year?

    RESEARCH HYPOTHESIS:
    There is an effect of using flashcards on the vocabulary mastery of the third year students of SDN Karanganyar 1 in the 2009/ 2010 academic year.

    NULL HYPOTHESIS:
    There is no effect of using flashcards on the vocabulary mastery of the third year students of SDN Karanganyar 1 in the 2009/ 2010 academic year.

    MARIYA PATMAWATI
    Post Graduate Program_UNISMA
    NPM:2091040051

  48. Wahju Indrawati says:

    Dear Sir,

    This is my assignment as I had sent through email

    Research Problem
    What is the influence of “picture series”in improving students’writing skill at Junior High School?

    Research Hypothesis
    There is a possitive correlation of using “picture series”to the students’writing skill at Junior High School.

    Null hypothesis
    There is no correlation between the using of “picture series”and students’writing skill at junior high School.

    I’m extremely looking foward to your comment and advice
    tanks alot

    Wahju Indrawati
    Post Graduate Student,UNISMA
    NPM 2091040015

    • Sugeng says:

      Dear Wahju,

      Your research problem and your research hypothesis do not match. Your research problem is about effect, your research hypotheses are about correlation.
      They must be in line with the research problem.
      Please revise.

      Rgds,
      Sugeng

  49. SYAIKHU says:

    Dear Sir this is my assighment.
    Research Problem
    Do the Natural science teachers get easier in writing short task than social science teachers at english course of SMK Daruttaqwa Purwosari?

    Research Hypothesis

    The natural science teachers get easier in writing short task than social science teachers at english course of SMK Daruttaqwa Purwosari

    Null Hypothesis

    The natural science teachers have difficulty in writing short task than social science teachers al english course of SMK Daruttaqwa Purwosari

    SYAIKHU
    Post Graduate Program UNISMA

    • Sugeng says:

      Syaikhu,

      Your research question formulation is not very clear.
      What is “social science teacher at english course”?
      And your null hypothesis is not correct. That is not a null hypothesis because you state “have difficulty”.

      Regards,
      Sugeng

  50. NURUL APRILIYANTI says:

    Research Question:
    By playing question’s card strategy, do the seventh year students SMPN 1 Dau Kabupaten Malang motivate to improve of the habit’s response questions?

    Research Hypothesis:
    By playing question’s card strategy, the seventh year students SMPN 1 Dau Kabupaten Malang motivate to improve of the habit’s response questions.

    Null Hypothesis:
    By playing question’s card strategy, the seventh year students SMPN 1 Dau Kabupaten Malang no motivate to improve of the habit’s response questions.

    NURUL APRILIYANTI
    NPM: 2091040010
    GRADUATE PROGRAM-UNISMA

    • Sugeng says:

      Dear Nurul,

      I am afraid some of your concept statement is confusing.
      What is “question’s card strategy”?
      What is “habit’s response question”?

      Revise this and the hypotheses accordingly.

      Regards,
      Sugeng

  51. Wahju Inrawati says:

    Dear Sir,
    Here is my revised

    Research Problem
    What is the influence of “picture series”in improving students’writing skill at Junior high School?

    Research Hypothesis
    There is an effect of using “picture series”to the students’writing skill at Junior High School.

    Null Hypothesis
    There is no effect between The using of “picture series”and the students’writing skill at Junior High School.

    Thanks alot for your correction,sir
    I am still looking foward to your advice.

    • Sugeng says:

      This is good, Wahju.
      But your null hypothesis needs revision. Don’t use the word “between”. This is mostly just like the research hypothesis in the formulation.

      Regards,
      Sugeng

  52. Fitri Anggraini H. says:

    RESEARCH PROBLEM:
    Is there any effect of different first language on literacy development of the student at SMU X Malang?

    RESEARCH HYPOTESIS:
    There is a positive effect of different first language on literacy development of the student at SMU X Malang

    NULL HYPOTESIS:
    There is no effect of different first language on literacy development of the student at SMU X Malang.

    Fitri Anggraini
    2091040024
    Postgraduate Program of English Education UNISMA

  53. Agung Setiawati says:

    thank you very much sir for your comment.
    Let me answer your reply that to control the other variables which influence the dependence variable is by taking notes what factor that may influence them. For example: the students have good listening skill because they used to listen western song music. It could be an additional information for me to recognize another independent variables as supporting data.
    That’s my answer. I really hope for your next comment and thank you very much

    Agung Setiawati
    Postgraduate English Education Program UNISMA

    • Sugeng says:

      Dear Agung,

      Controlling other variables means maintaining the other variable that may influence the dependent variable the same for all subject. The example of the other variable is IQ.

      What you mentioned is how to identify the independent variable.

      Regards,
      Sugeng

  54. wahju indrawati says:

    dear sir,
    here is my revised

    Research Problem:
    What is the influence of “picture series”in improving students’writing skill at junior High school?

    Research Hypothesis:
    There is an effect of using”picture series” to the students’writing skill at junior high school.
    Null hypothesis:
    There is no effect of “picture series”to the students’writing skill at junior high school.

    thanks alot for your guidance.Can I go to the Design Sir.
    WAHJU INDRAWATI
    2091040015,PPS UNISMA

  55. Eric says:

    My topic is ~The analysis of the impact of teaching methods on the performance of pupils at Junior High school Examination in mathematics~
    My Hypothesis is, the use of the the appropriate teaching method at JHS will increase pupils performance.
    Can there be further adjustment on this topic?

  56. mohammad says:

    hi,
    my study is about ” the pragmatics of religious expressions in Jordanian Arabic” can you provide me with some hypotheses?

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